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IPY-OSC Francisco Fernandoy-46
APECS is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere. Our aims are to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. We seek to achieve these aims by:
  • Facilitating international and interdisciplinary networking to share ideas and experiences and to develop new research directions and collaborations;
  • Providing opportunities for professional career development; and
  • Promoting education and outreach as an integral component of polar research and to stimulate future generations of polar researchers.


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Kitae Kim*, Wonyong Choi*, Michael R. Hoffmann**, Ho-Il Yoon***, Byong-Kwon Park***

*School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784, Korea **W. M. Keck Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA ***Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, Korea

Originally Presented at:
IPY Oslo Science Conference, Oslo, Norway 8-12 June 2010

The availability of iron has been thought as a main limiting factor for the phytoplankton productivity and related with the uptake of atmospheric CO2 and algal blooms in fresh and sea waters. In this work, the formation of bio-available iron (Fe(II)aq) from the dissolution of iron oxide particles was investigated in ice phase under both UV and visible light irradiation. The photoreductive dissolution of iron oxides proceeded slowly in aqueous solution (pH 3.5) but was significantly accelerated in polycrystalline ice with subsequently releasing more bioavailable ferrous iron upon thawing. The enhanced photogeneration of Fe(II)aq in ice was confirmed regardless of the type of iron oxides [hematite, maghemite (?-Fe2O3), goethite (?-FeOOH)] and the kind of electron donors. The ice-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides was also observed under visible light irradiation although the dissolution rate was much slower compared with the case of UV radiation. The iron oxide particles and organic electron donors (if any) in ice are concentrated and aggregated in the liquid-like grain boundary region (freeze concentration effect) where protons are also highly concentrated (lower pH). The enhanced photodissolution of iron oxides should occur in this confined boundary region. We hypothesized that electron hopping through the interconnected grain boundaries of iron oxide particles facilitates the separation of photoinduced charge pairs. The outdoor experiments carried out under ambient solar radiation of Ny-Alesund (Svalbard, 78.55 N) also showed that the generation of dissolved Fe(II)aq via photoreductive dissolution is enhanced when iron oxides are trapped in ice. Our results imply that the ice(snow)-covered surfaces and ice-cloud particles containing iron-rich mineral dusts in the polar and cold environments provide a source of bioavailable iron when they thaw.

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 National University Andrés Bello, Chile 

 APECS Council Ex-Officio

 APECS Executive Committee 2008-2009, 2009-2010 / APECS Chile

My interest on polar environment started very early as I lived during my childhood, in the city of Punta Arenas, Chile, at southern Patagonia. From there I moved to Concepción (Chile), to study Geology with polar-research always in mind. I started to work on Antarctic research being an undergraduate student, as field investigator in frame of a project funded by the Chilean Antarctic Institute (INACH). The aim was to study the evolution of the Gondwana break-up, based in paleontological and geological evidences. During these expeditions we worked at different points of the South Shetland Islands.At the beginning of 2007 I received a DAAD scholarship to initiate a PhD in Germany, at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) and the University of Potsdam, where I specialized in Geochemistry. Now the objectives of my research moved to the recent climate variability and glaciology of Antarctica. In this period three new expeditions to the Antarctic Peninsula followed. I graduated in early 2012.Currently I´m back to Chile and working at the National University Andrés Bello as a research fellow, planning new research for the following years.

What most attracted me from APECS, was the idea of collaboration between young researchers from different disciplines and nationalities. Even more, I saw APECS become the world leading organization for young scientist related to the cryosphere. I was really lucky to attend several scientific meetings like SCAR, IUGG, IPY, and many others, where every time APECS was rising in number of participants and events. I participated from 2009 to the present as an Executive Committee member and Council member. Together with other young researchers, we started the Chilean APECS Chapter, hopping to motivate many other scientists to do more polar research. We hope to be able to motivate the younger generations to get involved and continue to understand the Antarctic dynamics, which by the way has a strong influence in our continent and country.  

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