• Follow us on Twitter Check out latest tweets from @polar_research
  • Research Highlights Featured Check out APECS' new resource to share a "soundbyte" of your own research! Click to add your own or read others.
  • What's Your Research Explore polar research through APECS' members! Discover research highlights, virtual posters, and new disciplines here.
  • Education and Outreach APECS works with teachers, communities, and the media to share polar research. Get involved in APECS E&O here!
  • Train Yourself Click through to find Job postings, APECS career development webinars, the APECS mentor database, and more.
  • APECS Newsletter Click here to catch up on all things APECS! Highlights, partner news, jobs, member contributions, and more - every month!


IPY-OSC Francisco Fernandoy-46
APECS is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere. Our aims are to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. We seek to achieve these aims by:
  • Facilitating international and interdisciplinary networking to share ideas and experiences and to develop new research directions and collaborations;
  • Providing opportunities for professional career development; and
  • Promoting education and outreach as an integral component of polar research and to stimulate future generations of polar researchers.


Follow APECS


Kitae Kim*, Wonyong Choi*, Michael R. Hoffmann**, Ho-Il Yoon***, Byong-Kwon Park***

*School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784, Korea **W. M. Keck Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA ***Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, Korea

Originally Presented at:
IPY Oslo Science Conference, Oslo, Norway 8-12 June 2010

The availability of iron has been thought as a main limiting factor for the phytoplankton productivity and related with the uptake of atmospheric CO2 and algal blooms in fresh and sea waters. In this work, the formation of bio-available iron (Fe(II)aq) from the dissolution of iron oxide particles was investigated in ice phase under both UV and visible light irradiation. The photoreductive dissolution of iron oxides proceeded slowly in aqueous solution (pH 3.5) but was significantly accelerated in polycrystalline ice with subsequently releasing more bioavailable ferrous iron upon thawing. The enhanced photogeneration of Fe(II)aq in ice was confirmed regardless of the type of iron oxides [hematite, maghemite (?-Fe2O3), goethite (?-FeOOH)] and the kind of electron donors. The ice-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides was also observed under visible light irradiation although the dissolution rate was much slower compared with the case of UV radiation. The iron oxide particles and organic electron donors (if any) in ice are concentrated and aggregated in the liquid-like grain boundary region (freeze concentration effect) where protons are also highly concentrated (lower pH). The enhanced photodissolution of iron oxides should occur in this confined boundary region. We hypothesized that electron hopping through the interconnected grain boundaries of iron oxide particles facilitates the separation of photoinduced charge pairs. The outdoor experiments carried out under ambient solar radiation of Ny-Alesund (Svalbard, 78.55 N) also showed that the generation of dissolved Fe(II)aq via photoreductive dissolution is enhanced when iron oxides are trapped in ice. Our results imply that the ice(snow)-covered surfaces and ice-cloud particles containing iron-rich mineral dusts in the polar and cold environments provide a source of bioavailable iron when they thaw.

Contact the Author

Download the Poster


Featured Member


Postdoctoral Researcher at the Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway
ExCom member 2010-2012 

I studied Marine Environmental Sciences and Maths in Germany and got a first introduction to polar science during the work on my diploma thesis at the University of Helsinki, Finland, looking at model data of Arctic sea ice. To get my hands on some observational data, I went to the Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI) for an internship, got the opportunity to go on a science cruise to the Arctic ice, and got properly hooked on science and fieldwork. After a short while at NPI and the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) Office in Tromsø, I moved to the UK in 2006 to do my PhD at the British Antarctic Survey and the University of East Anglia. Switching hemisphere, I investigated currents and associated transports of material from the Antarctic Peninsula using models and observations and spent some time on ships in the Southern Ocean. While in the UK, I got involved in the national branch of APECS there, the UK Polar Network, looked after the UKPN finances for a couple of years, helped organising several UKPN and APECS events, and joined the APECS council in 2009. In summer 2010, I started at my current position at the Norwegian Polar Institute, and am now trying to combine upper ocean and sea ice physics, narrowing the gap between the two disciplines and furthering our understanding of the interactions between ocean and sea ice. Shortly after moving to Tromsø, I also joined the APECS ExCom and worked together with the other ExCom members to coordinate and advance the activities in our organisation and move APECS forward. Besides my science and outreach directly linked to the projects, I have also been involved as science leader in expeditions for young students, and have organised several outreach events and workshops for students and teachers. I try to share and pass on my passion for science and the polar regions to anybody who would listen!

Search APECS


Sign in with Facebook

APECS Quick Links

  • 1

APECS Partners and Sponsors