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IPY-OSC Francisco Fernandoy-46
APECS is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere. Our aims are to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. We seek to achieve these aims by:
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Kitae Kim*, Wonyong Choi*, Michael R. Hoffmann**, Ho-Il Yoon***, Byong-Kwon Park***

*School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784, Korea **W. M. Keck Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA ***Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, Korea

Originally Presented at:
IPY Oslo Science Conference, Oslo, Norway 8-12 June 2010

The availability of iron has been thought as a main limiting factor for the phytoplankton productivity and related with the uptake of atmospheric CO2 and algal blooms in fresh and sea waters. In this work, the formation of bio-available iron (Fe(II)aq) from the dissolution of iron oxide particles was investigated in ice phase under both UV and visible light irradiation. The photoreductive dissolution of iron oxides proceeded slowly in aqueous solution (pH 3.5) but was significantly accelerated in polycrystalline ice with subsequently releasing more bioavailable ferrous iron upon thawing. The enhanced photogeneration of Fe(II)aq in ice was confirmed regardless of the type of iron oxides [hematite, maghemite (?-Fe2O3), goethite (?-FeOOH)] and the kind of electron donors. The ice-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides was also observed under visible light irradiation although the dissolution rate was much slower compared with the case of UV radiation. The iron oxide particles and organic electron donors (if any) in ice are concentrated and aggregated in the liquid-like grain boundary region (freeze concentration effect) where protons are also highly concentrated (lower pH). The enhanced photodissolution of iron oxides should occur in this confined boundary region. We hypothesized that electron hopping through the interconnected grain boundaries of iron oxide particles facilitates the separation of photoinduced charge pairs. The outdoor experiments carried out under ambient solar radiation of Ny-Alesund (Svalbard, 78.55 N) also showed that the generation of dissolved Fe(II)aq via photoreductive dissolution is enhanced when iron oxides are trapped in ice. Our results imply that the ice(snow)-covered surfaces and ice-cloud particles containing iron-rich mineral dusts in the polar and cold environments provide a source of bioavailable iron when they thaw.

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juliaschmaleInstitute for Advanced Sustainability Studies e.V., Potsdam
Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Change Discipline Representative

I am an environmental engineer specialized in contaminated soil remediation and waste management. I studied at the University of Leoben, Austria, and spent approximately two years in Concepción, Chile, during this time doing some practical work in organic waste management. So, how did I end up with atmospheric science in Polar regions? After having learned a lot about anthropogenic emissions to soil, water and air and how they can be mitigated, I thought exploring the effects of atmospheric emissions would very much complete the picture. So, I started a PhD performing aircraft-based aerosol mass spectrometric measurements. My first campaign was on long-range transport pollution over Greenland during the International Polar Year in 2008. This experience got me hooked on studying Polar aerosol and was the motivation to join APECS. I also had the chance to measure a 3 months old volcanic aerosol plume from the Okmok and Kasatochi eruptions in the tropopause region over Central and Western Europe in fall 2008.

After having explored a very little bit of Arctic aerosol, I had the chance to measure particles in Sub-Antarctica for three months on Bird Island, South Georgia, a research station operated by the British Antarctic Survey. As a visiting scientist at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Scotland, my task was to find out about the contribution of sea bird emissions to the local submicron aerosol by studying particle chemical composition with specific focus on biogenic compounds and ammonia.

Since May 2012 I am leading a project on short-lived climate-forcing pollutants (SLCPs) at the interface between science, policy, society and the private business sector. Using transdisciplinary research methods my team is working on identifying research needs and pathways to policy implementation for the reduciton of SLCPs.

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