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IPY-OSC Francisco Fernandoy-46
APECS is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere. Our aims are to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. We seek to achieve these aims by:
  • Facilitating international and interdisciplinary networking to share ideas and experiences and to develop new research directions and collaborations;
  • Providing opportunities for professional career development; and
  • Promoting education and outreach as an integral component of polar research and to stimulate future generations of polar researchers.


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NAFO - North Atlantic Fisheries Organization


NAFO is an intergovernmental fisheries science and management body. NAFO was founded in 1979 as a successor to ICNAF (International Commission of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries). NAFO's overall objective is to contribute through consultation and cooperation to the optimum utilization, rational management, and conservation of the fishery resources of the Convention Area.


NAMMCO - North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission


NAMMCO - the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission - is an international body for cooperation on the conservation, management and study of marine mammals in the North Atlantic. NAMMCO provides a mechanism for cooperation on conservation and management for all species of cetaceans (whales and dolphins) and pinnipeds (seals and walruses) in the region, many of which have not before been covered by such an international agreement.


NARP - Nordic Arctic Research Programme


The goal of the programme is to enhance Nordic competence by building scientific cooperation within selected subject areas.   This will happen through network building, training and mobility of researchers, workshops and pilot studies.


NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration


NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research. NASA conducts its work in four principal organizations, called mission directorates: Aeronautics, Exploration Systems, Science, and Space Operations.


National Academies - Advisors to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


Four organizations comprise the Academies: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council. Known collectively as the National Academies, this organization produces groundbreaking reports that have helped shape sound policies, inform public opinion, and advance the pursuit of science, engineering, and medicine.


NATO Science Programme - North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Science Programme


The NATO Science Programme addresses environmental security in the Arctic Ocean. NATO helps integrate human and social dynamics into natural disaster response. The NATO science programme also examines origins, trends and methods of tackling suicide terrorism.


NAVO - Naval Oceanographic Office


The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) maximizes seapower by applying relevant oceanographic knowledge in support of U.S. National Security. Naval Ice Center (NAVICE)/National Ice Center (NIC) is a subordinate command of NAVO and is also a part of the National Ice Center (NIC).  The National Ice Center is a tri-agency operational center represented by the U.S. Navy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG).  The National Ice Center mission is to provide worldwide operational ice analyses for the armed forces of the United States and its allied nations, and U.S. government agencies.


NCAR - National Center for Atmospheric Research



The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a federally funded research and development center devoted to service, research and education in the atmospheric and related sciences. NCAR's mission is to understand the behavior of the atmosphere and related physical, biological and social systems; to support, enhance and extend the capabilities of the university community and the broader scientific community, nationally and internationally; and to foster transfer of knowledge and technology for the betterment of life on Earth.


NCDC - National Climate Data Center


The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is the world's largest active archive of weather data. Our mission is to provide access and stewardship to the Nation's resource of global climate and weather related data and information, and assess and monitor climate variation and change. This effort requires the acquisition, quality control, processing, summarization, dissemination, and preservation of a vast array of climatological data generated by the national and international meteorological services. NCDC's mission is global in nature and provides the U.S. climate representative to the World Meteorological Organization, the World Data Center System, and other international scientific programs.


NCE - Northern Climate ExChange


The Northern Climate ExChange is a clearinghouse of climate change information for Northern Canada. Their mandate is to provide independent information, develop shared understanding, and promote action on climate change.  NCE opened in February 2000, at the Northern Research Institute of Yukon College. The centre was created in response to growing concern over the impacts of climate change on the land, life, and communities of northern Canada.


NCEP - National Centers for Environmental Prediction


The Office of the Director at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction gives overarching management to the nine centers, which include the: Aviation Weather Center, Climate Prediction Center, Environmental Modeling Center, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, NCEP Central Operations, Ocean Prediction Center, Space Weather Prediction Center, Storm Prediction Center, and Tropical Prediction Center.


NCP - Northern Contaminants Program


The Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) was established in 1991 in response to concerns about human exposure to elevated levels of contaminants in wildlife species that are important to the traditional diets of northern Aboriginal peoples. Early studies found a wide variety of substances, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources, but which were, nevertheless, reaching unexpectedly high levels in the Arctic ecosystem.


NEESPI - Northern Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative


NEESPI is designed to establish an international, large-scale, interdisciplinary program aimed at developing a better understanding of the interactions between the terrestrial ecosystem, the atmosphere, and human dynamics in Northern Eurasia. To conduct a large-scale, interdisciplinary program of funded research aimed at developing a better understanding of the interactions between the terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere, with a special emphasis on the human impacts and feedbacks in northern Eurasia in support of international Earth science programs with particular relevance to global climate change research interests (including carbon) and international sponsoring agency funding priorities.


NEFSC - Northeast Fisheries Science Center



Northeast Fisheries Science Center is the research arm of NOAA Fisheries in the region. The Center plans, develops, and manages a multidisciplinary program of basic and applied research to: better understand living marine resources of the Northeast Continental Shelf Ecosystem from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, and the habitat quality essential for their existence and continued productivity; and describe and provide to management, industry, and the public, options for the conservation and utilization of living marine resources, and for the restoration and maintenance of marine environmental quality.


NERC - Natural Environment Research Council



NERC is the UK's main agency for funding and managing research, training and knowledge exchange in the environmental sciences.  We coordinate some of the world's most exciting research projects, tackling major issues such as climate change, environmental influences on human health, the genetic make-up of life on earth, and much more.  NERC is a non-departmental public body. We receive funding from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.


NERC ARSF - National Environment Research Council, Airborne Research and Survey Facility



Airborne remote sensing provides an efficient method for the rapid collection of data over a specified area; consequently it is a cost effective means of monitoring the terrestrial, freshwater, marine and atmospheric environments, provides a transitionary scale with which to validate satellite data, and enables the rapid acquisition of data for sudden or unexpected events, such as floods and earthquakes. Since 1983 the facility has supported a wide range of applications, including environmental science, geomorphology, archaeology, ecology, geologic surveying, pollution control and disaster management.


NERSC - Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center



Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) is an independent non-profit research institute affiliated with the University of Bergen, Norway. The Nansen Center conducts basic and applied environmental research funded by national and international governmental agencies, research councils and industry.  NERSC's vision is to make a significant contribution to the understanding, monitoring and forecasting of the world's environment and climate on regional and global scales. This is done through coordination and participation in national and international research program.


NGDC - National Geophysical Data Center


NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides scientific stewardship, products, and services for geophysical data from the Sun to the Earth and Earth's sea floor and solid earth environment, including Earth observations from space.


NIC - National Ice Center


The National Ice Center (NIC) is a multi-agency operational center operated by the United States Navy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the United States Coast Guard. Our mission is to provide the highest quality, timely, accurate, and relevant snow and ice products and services to meet the strategic, operations, and tactical requirements of the United States interests across the global area of responsibility.


NICCR - National Institute for Climatic Change Research


The National Institute for Climatic Change Research (NICCR, pronounced "nicer") is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), which is part of the DOE's Office of Science. The goal of NICCR is to mobilize university researchers, from all regions of the country, in support of the climatic change research objectives of DOE/BER. The NICCR is managed and coordinated through five Regional Centers, hosted by Pennsylvania State University, Duke University, Michigan Technological University, Northern Arizona University, and Tulane University.


NICL - National Ice Core Laboratory


The U.S. National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) is a facility for storing, curating, and studying ice cores recovered from the polar regions of the world. It provides scientists with the capability to conduct examinations and measurements on ice cores, and it preserves the integrity of these ice cores in a long-term repository for current and future investigations.


NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research



NILU is an independent, nonprofit institution established in 1969. Through its research NILU increases the understanding of processes and effects of climate change, of the composition of the atmosphere, of air quality and of hazardous substances. Based on its research, NILU markets integrated services and products within the analytical, monitoring and consulting sectors. NILU is concerned with increasing public awareness about climate change and environmental pollution.


NIMA - National Imagery and Mapping Agency


The Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), is the distributor of public sale National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) topographic maps, publications, and digital products. This catalog contains product descriptions, and availability for NIMA produced topographic maps and publications.


NIN - Northern Information Network


The Northern Information Network (NIN) encourages information sharing about the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut for more effective decision making in areas such as resource management and economic development. NIN supports a variety of research initiatives in and about the North, including project impact assessments, sustainable development strategies, wildlife management planning, land-use planning, and emergency preparedness.  NIN also shares information pertinent to the protection of the environment, economic development and social well-being in the North.  Publication list available.


NIOZ - Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research


NIOZ, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, is the National Oceanographic Institution of the Netherlands. The institute was founded in 1876 and is part of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. The mission of NIOZ is to gain and communicate scientific knowledge on seas and oceans for the understanding and sustainability of our planet, and to facilitate and support marine research and education in the Netherlands and Europe.


NIPR - National Institute for Polar Research



The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) was founded in 1973 to develop comprehensive research and observations in polar regions. It is an Inter-University Research Institute and a key institute for the implementing of Japanese Antarctic research programs. In 2004, NIPR became a component of the Research Organization of Information and Systems (ROIS).


NMML - National Marine Mammal Laboratory


The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) conducts research on marine mammals important to the mission of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with particular attention to issues related to marine mammals off the coasts of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California. Research projects focus on ecology and behavior, population dynamics, life history, and status and trends.  Information is provided to various domestic and international organizations to assist in developing rational and appropriate management regimes for marine resources under NOAA's jurisdiction.


NNBY - Northern Native Broadcasting of Yukon


NNBY reaffirms and maintains First Nation culture, spiritual beliefs, language, traditional values, land and animals. NNBY works for present and future generations, looking seven generations into the future. While it focuses on First Nations, NNBY is for all people. NNBY protects traditional knowledge, empowers First Nations people, supports self determination of First Nations, and facilitates the development of a respectful relationship between First Nations and other people. Culture also includes stories and customs, improving quality of life, and fosters the development of positive social and economic partnerships.


NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration



NOAA is an agency that enriches life through science. Their reach goes from the surface of the sun to the depths of the ocean floor as NOAA works to keep citizens informed of the changing environment around them.  From daily weather forecasts, severe storm warnings and climate monitoring to fisheries management, coastal restoration and supporting marine commerce, NOAA's products and services support economic vitality and affect more than one-third of America's gross domestic product. NOAA's dedicated scientists use cutting-edge research and high-tech instrumentation to provide citizens, planners, emergency managers and other decision makers with they reliable information they need, when they need it.


NOAA NESDIS - NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, Information Service



NESDIS is dedicated to providing timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources to promote, protect, and enhance the Nation's economy, security, environment, and quality of life.  To fulfill its responsibilities, NESDIS acquires and manages the nation's operational environmental satellites, operates the NOAA National Data Centers, provides data and information services including Earth system monitoring, performs official assessments of the environment, and conducts related research.  The NESDIS vision is to be the world's most comprehensive source and recognized authority for satellite products, environmental information, and official assessments of the environment in support of societal and economic decisions.


NODC - National Oceanographic Data Center


The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) is one of the national environmental data centers operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce. These discipline-oriented centers serve as national repositories and dissemination facilities for global environmental data. The data archives amassed by the NODC and the other centers provide a record of Earth's changing environment, and support numerous research and operational applications. Working cooperatively, the centers provide data products and services to scientists, engineers, resource managers, policy makers, and other users in the United States and around the world.


NOS - National Ocean Service



The National Ocean Service (NOS) translates science, tools, and services into action to address threats to coastal areas such as climate change, population growth, port congestion, and contaminants in the environment, all working towards healthy coasts and healthy economies.  The NOS mission is to provide science-based solutions through collaborative partnerships to address evolving economic, environmental, and social pressures on our oceans and coasts.


NPI - Norwegian Polar Institute


The Norwegian Polar Institute is Norway's central institution for research, environmental monitoring and mapping of the polar regions. The Institute is the Norwegian authorities' adviser and supplier of knowledge, and contributes to the best possible administration of Norwegian polar areas.


NPS - Naval Postgraduate School


NPS provides high-quality, relevant and unique advanced education and research programs that increase the combat effectiveness of the Naval Services, other Armed Forces of the U.S., and our partners, to enhance our national security.


NRC - National Research Council of Canada


The National Research Council (NRC) is the Government of Canada's premier organization for research and development.


NRF - Northern Research Forum



The Northern Research Forum (NRF) provides an international platform for an effective dialogue between members of the research community and a wide range of stakeholders including researchers, educators, politicians, business leaders, civil servants, community leaders, NGO representatives, and resource users and managers. The main mission of the NRF is to address the critical issues and highlight the opportunities which face people living in the regions of the Circumpolar North including the Nordic Region.


NRI - Northern Research Institute



The Northern Research Institute (NRI) is the division of Yukon College that provides research services and support to the College and other organizations. Both the Northern Climate ExChange and the Yukon Technology Innovation Program are located in the NRI annex building located behind the College.  Services offered through the NRI include: research fellowships, contract research, logistical support for research, technology development, and northern climate change research and education.  NRI also houses the Social Economy Research Network of Northern Canada.


NRI - Nunavut Research Institute


The Nunavut Research Institute strives to provide leadership in developing, facilitating and promoting traditional knowledge, science, research and technology as a resource for the well-being of people in Nunavut.


NSERC - Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada



NSERC aims to make Canada a country of discoverers and innovators for the benefit of all Canadians. The agency supports university students in their advanced studies, promotes and supports discovery research, and fosters innovation by encouraging Canadian companies to participate and invest in postsecondary research projects. NSERC researchers are on the vanguard of science, building on Canada's long tradition of scientific excellence.


NSF - National Science Foundation



The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense".  With an annual budget of about $6.9 billion (2010 fiscal year), they are the funding source for approximately 20 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by America's colleges and universities. In many fields such as mathematics, computer science and the social sciences, NSF is the major source of federal backing.


NSIDC - National Snow and Ice Data Center



The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is part of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado at Boulder. NSIDC supports research into our world's frozen realms: the snow, ice, glaciers, frozen ground, and climate interactions that make up Earth's cryosphere. Scientific data, whether taken in the field or relayed from satellites orbiting Earth, form the foundation for the scientific research that informs the world about our planet and our climate systems. NSIDC manages and distributes scientific data, creates tools for data access, supports data users, performs scientific research, and educates the public about the cryosphere.


Nunavut Database


The Nunavut Database contains descriptions of 29,000 publications and research projects about Nunavut and the adjacent waters, the Canadian Arctic as a whole, and the circumpolar Arctic as a whole. The database was created for the Nunavut Planning Commission by the Arctic Science and Technology Information System. The Nunavut Database contains two different types of records: citations to publications and research project descriptions.


NWO - Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research


The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) funds thousands of top researchers at universities and institutes and steers the course of Dutch science by means of subsidies and research programmes.


NySMAC - Ny-Ålesund Science Managers Committee


The Ny-Ålesund Science Managers Committee (NySMAC) was established in 1994 to enhance cooperation and coordination amongst research activities at the Ny-Ålesund International Arctic Research and Monitoring Facility.  NySMAC ensures that ongoing and planned research is not in conflict with environmental laws and regulations, and provides advice and comments on issues such as research planning and coordination, infrastructure development, and environmental protection.


NZAI - New Zealand Antarctic Institute



Antarctica New Zealand is the Crown Entity responsible for developing, managing and executing New Zealand Government activities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, in particular the Ross Dependency.  Antarctica New Zealand manages Scott Base, New Zealand's Antarctic research station.  It maintains New Zealand's operational presence in the Ross Dependency for the benefit of present and future generations of New Zealanders.  Key activities include supporting scientific research, conserving the intrinsic values of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, and raising public awareness of the international significance of the continent.


Featured Member

ChristieWoodClark University, Massachusetts, USA

I am a graduate student in the Geography department at Clark University in the United States. I work with Professor Karen Frey as part of her newly formed Polar Science Research Lab. I am interested in how variations in climate impact the Arctic marine system. In particular, I am looking at how changes in Arctic sea ice affect the ecology and biogeochemistry of the Arctic Ocean. My dissertation research focuses on understanding the impacts of sea ice decline in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter, which plays an important role in the marine ecosystem as both a carbon source for the microbial food web and as an inhibitor of light. This work is carried out through a combination of field measurements (as part of NASA’s ICESCAPE mission), lab experiments, and satellite remote sensing observations.

Prior to working at Clark, I earned two bachelors degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The first was in mathematics and the second was in earth, atmospheric and planetary science. After that, I completed a master’s degree in physical oceanography in the joint program between MIT and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 

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