Session Chair: Marte Hofsteenge
Session Convener: Jan-Lukas Menzel Barraqueta
Session Coordinators: Azat Garipov, Sabiya Sheikh, Yuxuan Li (Sara)
Time: 20 May from 11:30 - 14:20 GMT
11:35 - 11:50 GMT: Geographical Information Systems As A Tool For Collaboration Across Knowledge Systems: An Arctic Case Study.
Presenter: Charlie Hewitt
Institution: University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Type: Oral Presentation
Abstract: The fragmentation of semi-domesticated reindeers’ habitats in Norway is a consequence of political and industrial development - in 2013, for example, the Norwegian government enforced herders to cull a percentage of their herd, on the grounds of reducing the damage caused to habitats by over-grazing.
A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a tool used to process, analyse and visualise spatial data. GIS allows for the integration of information from a range of sources which can be presented in the same geographic context, allowing for effective and uncomplicated knowledge exchanges and collaborations between a range of parties - this makes GIS a powerful tool.
This study’s objectives were to use GIS analyses to explore reindeers’ patterns of habitat use and movement, and to effectively visualise and communicate the study’s findings to inform herders, policy makers, and researchers.
This study consolidated reindeers’ GPS location data, and data from Indigenous herders’ observations of reindeers’ calving success. Habitat use and movement were explored using kernel density estimation analysis, animated visualisations of movement trajectories, calculations of mean daily speed and distance travelled, and behavioural change point analysis. An interactive map visualising the data in a range of contexts was used to communicate the study’s findings to involved parties.
The GIS analysis found stark differences between the habitat use and movements of reindeer with and without a calf; reindeer with a calf had shorter, slower, more localised movements than reindeer without a calf. These findings were seen in multiple years. GIS was also found to be an effective tool in visualising and communicating the study’s findings.
GIS is a highly effective tool in assimilating information from a range of sources, knowledge exchanges and collaborations in a multi-disciplinary context. As the adoption of GIS tools and methodologies increase, GIS’ role in collaborations across knowledge systems will expand.
11:50 - 12:05 GMT: Permafrost And Active Layer Temperature Regimes And Their Geographical Controls (barton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica)
Presenter: Joana Baptista
Institution: CEG/IGOT, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Type: Oral Presentation
Abstract: The South Shetlands are located off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula close to the climatic limit of permafrost in one of the most sensitive regions to permafrost degradation. The climate is cold oceanic with mean annual air temperatures of ci. -2°C at sea-level. Boreholes drilled in bedrock show permafrost temperatures of -1.8 ºC at mountain sites and the absence of permafrost close to sea-level.
Until the Antarctic season of 2018-19, the deepest borehole in King George Island was at Bellingshausen station in Fildes Peninsula (8 m deep) with temperatures of -0.35 ºC (see Vieira et al. 2010). Data on permafrost temperatures, in boreholes deeper than 10 m was fully lacking in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Given this scenario, a new borehole integrated in the PERMANTAR network and in the GTN-P was drilled in 2019 in Barton Peninsula, King George Island. The King Sejong Station Borehole was drilled in massive andesite at 128 m asl, reaching a depth of 13.2 m. Temperature data is recorded hourly using a datalogger with 15 temperature sensors. 20 ibuttons were installed in different terrain settings to monitor the spatial variability of ground surface temperature.
We present the analysis of the ground temperature regimes in the monitoring sites for the period 2019-20 and provide a first overview of the permafrost conditions in Barton Peninsula. Snow cover is examined using Sentinel-1 SAR imagery and ground temperature and freezing and thawing indexes are analyzed using a GIS in order to assess the controlling geographical factors.
Presenter: Zane Šime
Type: Flash presentation
Abstract: Roughly five years ago Yeo Lay Hwee invited to mould the Asia-Europe Meeting by crafting a compelling vision of a bustling Asia-Europe Marketplace – a well-connected bazaar where trade and ideas flow both ways. In 2018, a scholarly call for more visible celebration of the annual ASEM Day was issued. The flash talk is presented after the publishing of the article “Greenness in the Anthropocene” on the ASEF culture360 platform which coincided with the APECS International Polar Week March 2020. The flash talk aims at launching broader discussions among APECS members what does the call for more activities towards building awareness about and more pronounced visibility of ASEM mean for the Arctic – an area which has been identified by the ASEM scholars as a potential subject for future ASEM consultations. What might polar scientists contribute to the ASEM reflections on the Arctic maritime transport routes? Judging from the diverse references to the polar developments captured in “Greenness in the Anthropocene”, is maritime transport the only thematic dimension of relevance to fruitful discussions among the ASEM partner states?
12:10 - 12:25 GMT: Collaborative Survey Development And Training To Understand Inuit Uses And Needs For Weather, Water, Ice And Climate Information
Presenter: Natalie Carter
Institution: University of Ottawa, Canada
Type: Oral Presentation
Abstract: Weather, water, and ice conditions in Inuit Nunangat (Inuit homelands) have become increasingly unpredictable due to the combined effects of climate change and industrial development. Rapid social and political change has also impacted the intergenerational transfer of Inuit knowledge and subsistence harvesting practices, creating challenges for Inuit to travel safely on the land (including water and ice). Our team of 35 Inuit, northern, and southern researchers connects long-term research partnerships in 9 Nunavut, 3 Nunavik, and 3 Inuvialuit communities. For years we have been hearing that weather, water, ice, and climate (WWIC) information and services are not meeting Inuit and other northerners' local needs considering the scale, accessibility, usability, language, and technological barriers that arise for remote northern communities. At the same time, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami’s 2018 National Inuit Strategy on Research (NISR) calls for the inclusion of Inuit as partners in the governance of Inuit Nunangat research, and the development of necessary skills and confidence for Inuit to conduct research on their own, on topics of interest to them or those highlighted as priorities in their community.
Our goal in working together is to help improve the WWIC information that is available, and how it is communicated in northern communities, while creating opportunities and empowering Inuit and Northerners to be research leaders.
To accomplish this goal, we follow the Aajiiqatigingniq research framework, outlined by the Aqqiumavvik Society working with Elders from across Nunavut. This framework guides our collaborative efforts at consensus-building and decision-making. This presentation will outline the process we have taken to date involving collaborative survey development and training Local Research Coordinators (LRC) who are being supported remotely while independently facilitating questionnaires. The process of conducting collaborative survey development and co-facilitating training events led us to reflect on our approach and methodology we engaged in while undertaking those activities. Our reflections are drawn from assessments of co-facilitated training events; a collective review of field notes; and informal discussions among co-authors and with LRCs and Network Investigators. We draw on our individual and collective experiences. We offer our reflections in order to support future efforts in this emerging capacity-enhancement-and-partnership approach to research, and to contribute to ongoing discussions surrounding capacity enhancement, partnership research, and Inuit self-determination.
12:25 - 12:40 GMT: Seasonal Variation In Microbial Community Compositions And Functions On Icelandic Glacier
Presenter: Matthias Winkel
Institution: GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany
Type: Oral presentation
Abstract: Glaciers are one of the most important freshwater reservoirs (68%) on Earth. Meltwaters from glaciers feed downstream ecosystems and are the main drinking water source on several continents. Many of these freshwater reservoirs are threatened due to climate change driven increases in temperatures, which when combined with the increased abundance of light absorbing particles (LAP) on glacier surfaces (i.e., mineral dust, soot and pigmented microorganisms) leads to albedo reduction and increased melting. Among LAP’s, microorganisms, and specifically pigmented algae have been identified as prime players, reducing albedo by up to 20%. However, many aspects of the algal life cycle are still unclear.
To understand algal blooms and their seasonal changes between winter and summer we sampled snow and ice surfaces on 4 glaciers in Iceland and quantified nutrient loads as well as concentrations, molecular fractions and structures of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) species. Together with the variations in total organic carbon, δ13C isotopic compositions and the microbial community composition allowed us to evaluate the delivery, production and export of organic compounds and microbial processes on Icelandic snow and ice fields.
Our data shows that the higher winter nutrient contents were not matched by the opposite patterns in DOC contents, which were 4 times higher in summer, clearly pointing to high turnover rates by microbial communities. In contrary to the bacterial communities, which showed clear seasonal and habitat (snow vs. ice) separations, the pigmented algae (Chlorophyta) were not detected in winter yet showed a clear separation by habitat in the summer samples. Similarly clear distinctions were observed in carbon and nitrogen compositions and isotopic patterns.
These seasonal and habitat specific data sets help improve our understanding of the complex biotic drivers and their role in organic matter cycling in snow and ice on glaciers.
Presenter: Michele Moaraes
Institution: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais / Postdoctoral fellow at Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil
Type: Oral presentation
Abstract: Antarctic expeditions include psychophysiological challenges, such as isolation, cold and extreme photoperiods (continuous exposure to natural light during summer); all of these challenges influence sleep. We assessed changes in night sleep patterns during displacement on a ship, 50-days in a camp (Nelson Island, S53.178533°/O70.899750°) and the post-field period on the ship, from Dec2019 to Feb2020. Sleep efficiency, time in bed, number of awakenings, wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep time and sleep latency were determined daily in seven participants (5M, 2W) using actimetry (ActTrust,Condor). The expedition was divided in: Pre-field (6 days on board), Field-1 (1st week of field), Field-2 (days 8 to 20), Field-3 (days 21 to 35), Field-4 (days 35 to 50) and Post-field (4 days on board). Mood state was evaluated using the Brunel Mood Scale, and daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Scale, both applied between 7 and 9am. Relative to the Pre-field measurements, Antarctic summer camp reduced sleep efficiency by 4.8%, and increased time in bed, number of awakenings and WASO by 15.7%, 42.5% and 38.3%, respectively; all changes returned to Pre-field values during the Post-field. At Field-2, 3 and 4, excessive daytime sleepiness (score above 10) was observed. 'Confusion' was increased at Field 1, and ‘vigor’ was reduced at the end of camping (Field 4). There were no differences in sleep time, sleep latency, anger, depression, tension and fatigue. The present results suggest that a 50-day summer camp in Antarctica changes the sleep pattern, thereby increasing drowsiness and inducing occasional negative changes in mood.
13:00 - 13:15 GMT: Exploring The Impact Of Youth Experiences In The Polar Regions On Pro-environmental Behaviour
Presenter: Christy Hehir
Institution: University of Surrey, United Kingdom
Type: Oral Presentation
Abstract: This empirical study assesses the effect of youth polar travel experiences on participants’ pro-environmental and conservation behaviour, in some cases, up to 18 years after their polar voyage. The research explores how adventurous education programmes can act as a stimulus to lasting pro-environmental behaviour. Participants were recruited from the 2,500+ alumni of Students on Ice (SOI), a Canadian-based charitable organization that leads educational expeditions to the Polar Regions for international high school and university students. In partnership with SOI, the survey has been co-designed and data collected via an online survey. The research seeks responses with regard to the forms of actual pro-environmental behaviour, travel and lifestyle decisions subsequently made by SOI Alumni. A mix of quantitative and qualitative analysis is used. Path analysis measures participants’ relationships between multiple variables including travel experience (e.g. onsite activities, learning, species seen), connection to nature and pro-environmental behaviours, whilst thematic analysis is used to interrogate the descriptive responses.
Although recent studies hint that youth interactions with nature may influence their environmental attitudes in later life, few studies have gone beyond the immediate evaluation of such programs to understand the subsequent development of participant environmental values and actual behaviours in the longer term. The multi-phased study was designed in partnership with SOI where a survey was co-designed and data collected via an online survey (n=217). The research tested direct and indirect relationships between participants’ travel experience and their subsequent connections with nature and pro-environmental behaviours. Practical implications of this research will empower SOI to add independent evidence to support future funding applications and importantly generate a dataset to act as a baseline for future longitudinal studies and create a survey tool to capture future societal change.
Presenter: Lisa Sheffield Guy
Institution: Arctic Research Consortium of the US, United States
Type: Oral presentation
Abstract: The Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS; https://www.arcus.org/) is a nonprofit consortium of member institutions that serves the Arctic research community by supporting the formation and enhancement of connections across boundaries. ARCUS manages several collaborative programs that engage Arctic researchers, educators, and Alaskan Indigenous communities in Arctic research and policy. This presentation will focus on several of our programs that bridge knowledge systems in the Arctic, including network challenges and lessons learned. The Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook (https://www.arcus.org/siwo) is a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others interested in sea ice and walrus, since 2009. The Arctic in the Classroom (https://www.arcus.org/tac) partners Arctic researchers with rural Alaskan teachers and community members to improve place-based education in the Alaskan Arctic. The Arctic Indigenous Scholars Program (https://www.arcus.org/indigenous-scholars), in partnership with the Inuit Circumpolar Council – Alaska, provides support for Indigenous knowledge-holders to travel to Washington DC to engage with policy-makers. Additionally, ARCUS seeks to support Arctic researchers in building respectful, collaborative relationships with Alaskan Indigenous communities by facilitating connections and providing resources, such as the Conducting Research with Northern Communities webpage (https://www.arcus.org/resources/northern-communities). Moving forward, ARCUS intends to increase the Arctic research community’s capacity to undertake productive collaborations, bridge knowledge systems, and promote a more inclusive community.
Presenter: Nohelia Farías Curtidorl
Institution: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Type: Oral presentation
Abstract: The Southern Ocean holds about 20% of the worlds’ seals and whales, represented by 15 species of cetaceans and six species of pinnipeds. Similarly, the area holds around 60 bird species, represented by 6 orders and 11 families. However, few studies have been focused on assessing occurrence patterns of marine fauna on board research vessels in Antarctica. In order to evaluate the occurrence of marine mammals and birds in the Ross Sea, the Marine Mammal Monitoring Program at the Colombian Antarctic Program in cooperation with Italian Antarctic Program, conducted a marine fauna monitoring survey during the transit from New Zealand to the Ross sea, and in the Ross Sea during the 2019-2020 austral summer (January-February, 2020). The survey was conducted on board the Oceanographic and research Italian vessel Laura Bassi, during 35 days, traveling approximately 9,260km, with a total of 226 hours and 11 minutes of visual effort. During this survey, there were 80 sightings, in which five cetacean species and four pinniped species were reported. Additionally, there were 146 bird sightings of 15 different species, represented by three orders and five families. Our preliminary findings suggest that minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata/bonaerensis), the crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophagus), and the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) are the three most common marine mammal species in the Ross Sea. Similarly, the snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea), brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), and the Southern giant petrel (Macroneces giganteus) are the most common bird species in this Antarctic area. However, it is necessary to implement a long-term monitoring program in order to effectively understand the distributional patterns of marine fauna along the Ross Sea.
Presenter: Renuka Badhe
Institution: European Polar Board, Netherlands
Type: Keynote presentation
Abstract: Academia is still often held as the most likely route that a recent PhD will or should aim for. The traditional picture paints a straightforward path from PhD to a couple of post docs to lectureship ending in tenure. This may have been an evident normality in the past, but the reality and acceptability of working with a PhD has now changed considerably. We will explore the range of opportunities available to polar early career researchers, from communication, policy, to education, for polar early career researchers.