Atmospheric science concerns itself with investigating the physical, chemical and radiative properties of the Earth’s atmosphere. Polar atmospheric science received a great deal of attention in the late 20th century with the 1985 discovery of the Antarctic “Ozone Hole”; a discovery that led to the Montreal Protocol and a comprehensive global ban of chlorofluorocarbons. While the monitoring of CFC’s and studies of polar stratospheric clouds continues, polar atmospheric science has received renewed attention during the IPY because of its important role in global climate.
The atmosphere over Antarctica serves as a laboratory for investigating the remote background atmosphere. Since it is far from anthropogenic pollution sources, short-lived species (e.g. aerosols, VOC’s) are nearly absent. However, the presence of long-lived trace gases (e.g. CO2) is used to study the rate of global redistribution of man-made pollution. We find that the Arctic atmosphere is much different than its antipode. Each spring the Arctic atmosphere is affected by “Arctic Haze”. This winter/spring reduction in visibility within the polar vortex has been observed since at least the 1950’s and is directly attributed to anthropogenic air pollution in the Northern Hemisphere.
The buildup of atmospheric pollution in the Arctic is of particular concern for two reasons. First, atmospheric aerosols scatter and absorb incoming/outgoing solar radiation directly affecting the radiation budget of the Arctic environment. Anthropogenic aerosols typically contain light-absorbing black carbon which can lead to direct heating of the Arctic atmosphere; heating which is in addition to the gradual rise of global temperature due to GHG’s. Second, aerosols serve as cloud and ice condensation nuclei making them a key component of the hydrological cycle. The light-absorbing properties of the aerosol continue once they are deposited with precipitation. This reduction in snow/ice albedo potentially affects the terrestrial hydrological cycle of the Arctic by accelerating the melting of permanent snow and ice. The composition of meltwaters is also affected since trace-gases and aerosols can deposit inorganic salts (e.g. H2SO4, HNO3, NH4+), trace metals (e.g Hg0, Cd), and volatile organic compounds (e.g. benzene, MTBE) which are not ordinarily found in the Polar Regions.
As we so often find in Polar Science, the study of the polar atmospheres is more difficult than at mid-latitudes. Satellites retrievals over the poles are complicated by bright surface targets (i.e. snow, ice) as well as seasonal or persistent cloud cover. Also, there is a dearth of surface-based and vertical column measurements with which to constrain global climate models. Many of these and other issues related to Polar Atmospheric Science were investigated during IPY. And in the years to come, answers to some questions may be found within the IPY data. However, the sparse nature of the observations, their short duration, and the rapidly changing environment of the Polar Regions will ensure that study of the Earth’s Polar Atmospheres will continue for years to come.
What is the difference between Climate and a Climate System?
Climate - The long-term average of conditions in the atmosphere, ocean, and ice sheets and sea ice described by statistics, such as means and extremes.
Climate System - The matter, energy, and processes involved in interactions among Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and Earth-Sun interactions.
What is the difference between Climate Change and Global Warming?
Climate Change - A significant and persistent change in the mean state of the climate or its variability. Climate change occurs in response to changes in some aspect of Earth’s environment: these include regular changes in Earth’s orbit about the sun, re-arrangement of continents through plate tectonic motions, or anthropogenic modification of the atmosphere.
Global Warming - The observed increase in average temperature near the Earth’s surface and in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. In common usage, “global warming” often refers to the warming that has occurred as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities. Global warming is a type of climate change; it can also lead to other changes in climate conditions, such as changes in precipitation patterns.
CLIMATE LITERACY: The Essential Principles of Climate Science
- The Sun is the primary source of energy for Earth’s climate.
- Climate is regulated by complex interactions among components of the Earth system.
- Life on Earth depends on, is shaped by, and affects climate.
- Climate varies over space and time through both natural and man -made processes.
- Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling.
- Human activities are impacting the system.
- Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.
Since when are we aware of the ozone hole? Why is ozone depleted over Antarctica and how does the mechanism work? What do Polar Stratospheric Clouds have to do with the ozone hole and why does it occur in early spring? Did the Montreal Protocol have any effects? And did you know that in 2011 an ozone hole was observed over the Arctic, as well?
You probably can think of a variety of more questions. To answer all your inquiries about the ozone hole please see this webpage.
Atmosphere and Climate
Polar atmospheric and climate sciences are hugely diverse, covering research topics as varied as air-snow interactions, tropospheric pollution, and stratospheric clouds! On this page we highlight the work APECS members are doing in these fields, introduce relevant mentors, and provide resources to help you better understand this complex and exciting research area.
As part of our efforts to showcase the great research and upcoming challenges in the area of Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, a few APECS mentors have worked with us to create these short videos that we hope will inspire you to learn more about the interesting and complex nature of polar atmosphere and climate research.
Andreas Stohl on Atmospheric long-range pollution transport to the Arctic
Johannes Schneider on Why we are concerned about aerosol in the Arctic?
Vladimir Kattsov on The changing Arctic and what we need to understand this?
Jim Overland on The most interesting things about polar atmospheric science
Klaus Dethloff on What is needed to better understand polar atmospheric sciences
Julia Schmale– Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany
Jenny Fisher– APECS Atmospheric Sciences Discipline Co-Coordinator, Harvard University, USA
Pollution transported to the Arctic during the POLARCAT-France spring and summer campaigns: source regions and aerosol properties
--- Boris Quennehen, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Physique at the Universite Blaise Pascal, France
Source Identification and Airborne Chemical Characterization of Aerosol Pollution from long-range Transport over Greenland
--- Julia Schmale, Max Planck-Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany
Here are a few outside links to help you get started in polar atmospheric/climate science.