These Rules of Procedure (ROP) have been drafted by the first, interim APECS Executive Committee. These are intended to provide a framework for initial APECS activities and governance. One of our intentions is that the ROP can be modified through due process in order to respond to the changing needs, composition and activities of an evolving APECS.
Ratified Unanimously by APECS Council on 5 June 2008.
Ammended Unanimously by APECS Council on 30 June 2011 to include Appendix 1. APECS Guidelines for Donation.
Ammended Unanimously by the APECS Council on 9 September 2014 to include Appendix 2 and other modifications required to reflect the development of the organisation since its inception.
APECS has two membership categories: individual members, and organizational members.
1.1 Individual Members
1.1.1 Individual membership in APECS is open to students, educators, early career researchers and others with an interest in APECS' aims and activities related to the Polar Regions, Alpine Regions and the Cryosphere.
1.1.2 Individual membership is automatic, and acknowledged by website registration, and does not require affiliation with a member organization.
1.1.3 The APECS leadership reserves the right to terminate individual membership.
1.1.4 Individual members are entitled to:
(a) Nominate themselves or be nominated for any position within the APECS organizational structure.
(b) Participate in APECS activities.
(c) Propose new APECS activities through Council, Executive Committee representatives or the Executive Director.
1.1.5 Individual members shall not speak on behalf of APECS, or claim their views as representative of APECS without explicit approval of APECS' executive leadership - either the Executive Committee or Executive Director.
1.2 Organizational Members
1.2.1 Organizational membership is open to organizations with interests consistent with those of APECS, such as (i) formally registered and recognized national and regional APECS committees, and (ii) disciplinary, interdisciplinary, and science policy related organizations and (iii) other groups that share APECS' goals.
1.2.2 Organizational membership is established through a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), or similar document, between the organization and APECS. A MoU is also required to be signed between all APECS National Committees (NCs) that have formal organizational recognition through registration within their home countries / regions to define their relationship with APECS. In the case the NC is not officially registered as a legal entity within their home country / region, a Letter of Agreement (LoA) will be signed between APECS and the NC to recognize and define their role of representing APECS membership in their home country / region.
1.2.3 Organizational members shall not speak on behalf of APECS, or claim their views as representative of APECS without explicit approval of APECS' executive leadership (the Executive Committee or Executive Director).
2. Organization structure
2.1. General Structure
2.1.1 The APECS organizational structure shall consist of: (1) an open Council, (2) an elected Executive Committee, (3) an International Directorate (if funds allow), as well as other (4) working groups and committees, including (5) an advisory committee and (6) individual officers.
2.1.2 The Council is concerned with APECS organizational matters and governance including structure, elections and appointments, Rules of Procedure, and membership. The Council votes on the approval of motions proposed by APECS members, the Executive Committee or the Executive Director.
2.1.3 The Council mandates the Executive Committee and Executive Director the ability to make decisions necessary for the implementation of APECS activities and initiatives.
2.1.4 The primary role of the International Directorate is the ongoing coordination of APECS activities. Where appropriate support is available, the Council can approve the establishment of the position of a paid Executive Director who shall head the International Directorate. When such support is unavailable the Executive Committee shall propose an alternative approach to the Council for approval.
2.1.5 The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to ensure that APECS' objectives remain relevant to its members and the broader polar community, and to provide guidance and advice to the organisation.
2.1.6. Further working groups and committees are established as needed.
2.2 The Council
Preface: The first and interim APECS Council was formed by all attendees at the Sanga-Saby meeting, September 2007. Following this meeting a Council open to any APECS members was introduced. The roles of the Council are: to provide a link between the APECS membership, partner organizations, APECS working groups and committees and the Executive Committee, to elect the Executive Committee and mandate them with decision making power to oversee APECS activities and operation, and to vote on matters of APECS governance and structure.
Background: Settling on this type of Council (more fully explained below) took a lot of time and discussion between the initial APECS Executive Committee, Director and Dave Carlson, head of the IPY International Program Office. It was felt that this was the best system for our membership, and a complete discussion is contained in the accompanying memo.
Members of the Council must be APECS members. Organizational members are encouraged to nominate delegates (who must be or become individual APECS members). APECS National or Regional Committees are required to designate a representative to be part of the Council or a similar committee that has the purpose to connect the National Committees with each other and the APECS Executive leadership. In order to accommodate geographically dispersed Council members and limited possibilities for physical meetings, Council votes shall remain open for a period of time, can be made via any means of communication, and require no quorum.
2.2.1 The Council shall consist of individual members and representatives from organizational members. All Organizational members can appoint one member to the Council, except for APECS National and Regional Committees, which are permitted to have more than one member join the APECS Council. Individual members are self-nominated. Each new Council applicant requires approval by the APECS Executive Committee before being accepted into the Council.
2.2.2. Council terms are on a calendar year basis and open for renewal. The Council terms are from 1 October of one year to 30 September of the following year. Council member may resign prior to the end of their term. Interested APECS members can apply to the Council at any time throughout the term.
2.2.3 Amendments to either the APECS ROP or APECS TOR require a 2/3 majority of those who vote. All other Council decisions require a more than 50% majority of those who vote. Voting may be via any means of communication set forth by the Executive Committee.
2.2.4 All Council votes shall be by secret ballot by any means of communication that ensures anonymity, if deemed necessary and appropriate by Council or the Executive Committee.
2.2.5 The Council shall meet on a regular basis using any means of communication available. Efforts shall be made by the Council or the Executive for the Council to meet at large scientific meetings, ideally on an annual basis.
2.2.6 Efforts will be made to ensure that the Council provides broad and effective representation of APECS members.
2.2.7. The Council is led by one or more (co-) chair(s) that provide a link between Council and Executive Committee and Executive Director. Council chairs are self-nominated and elected by the Council at the beginning of each new term.
2.2.8. The rights and responsibilities of the Council members are defined in the Council Charter. The Charter shall be made available publicly on the APECS website and sent to all Council members at the beginning of their term. The Council can form sub-committees and working groups as needed to work on specific tasks.
2.2.9. The Council can have ex-officio members as needed. Ex-officio Council members can be self-nominated but require approval and appointment the Executive Committee. Positions as ex-officio Council members are open to those that served a) a minimum of two terms as active Council members, and / or b) a minimum of 1 term as Executive Committee member. The primary role of ex-officio Council members is to provide advice and mentorships to the active members of the Council. They can and are encouraged to take part in any Council activity they want to but they do not have voting rights in Council decisions.
2.3 The Executive Committee
2.3.1 The Executive Committee is mandated to make decisions and implement APECS directions and activities except those of governance and organizational structure, on which the Council decides.
2.3.2 The Council elects an Executive Committee of 5 members. Elections are to be held at least once a year, or more if deemed necessary by Council to maintain a continuum of leadership.
2.3.3 Terms are for 1 year (1 October of one year to 30 September of the following year), and renewable, with the hope that in order to provide continuity, not all Executive members change at each election. It is accepted that within this term, the various other commitments of individual Executive Committee members will lead to periods of reduced participation.
2.3.4 In the event of an Executive Committee resignation, the Executive Committee shall appoint an interim member to serve until the next election.
2.3.5 The Executive Committee elects a President from within the Executive Committee. Other Executive Committee members are all titled Vice-President.
2.3.6 The President is the highest elected official of APECS and principle point of contact with an APECS International Directorate, if it exists. Vice-Presidents act in lieu of the President as and when necessary, using the title Vice-President.
2.3.7 All Executive Committee decisions are made by vote of Executive Committee members and require a 3/4 or higher majority of those who vote, with at least 3 members voting.
2.3.8 It is recommended that at least one outgoing Executive Member makes themselves available as an ex-officio advisor to the Executive Committee. This ex-officio members should have served several terms on the Executive Committee and have contributed significantly to the development of the organisation. The outgoing APECS President can also be asked to continue in an ex-officio position, if they are not returning as an active Executive Committee members. The appointment of ex-officio Executive Committee members requires a majority vote of the outgoing Executive Committee. Ex-officio Executive Committee members have no voting rights in the Executive Committee.
2.4. International Directorate
At the inception of APECS, it was considered advantageous to have a paid Executive Director if such a position can be supported. Ideally, such an Executive Director would be supported through the hosting of an International Directorate by an established institution with similar interests to APECS.
2.4.1 An APECS International Directorate is responsible for coordination and implementation of APECS activities, membership, communication, and organizational function and integrity, including fundraising, and legal and financial compliance.
2.4.2 Ideally, the International Directorate is hosted by an Organizational Member on a rotating basis.
2.4.3 Entering into an agreement for the provision of an APECS International Directorate shall require a vote of confidence from the Council in consultation with the Advisory Committee.
2.4.4 The job description and appointment of an APECS Executive Director is made in consultation between the organization hosting the International Directorate and the Executive Committee.
2.4.5 Appointment of an Executive Director shall require a vote of confidence from the Council in consultation with the Advisory Committee.
2.4.6 The Executive Committee shall be consulted during regular performance reviews within the International Directorate and shall, if deemed necessary, conduct yearly evaluations of the International Directorate.
2.4.7 The Executive Director is granted freedom to seek new directions, funding, partnerships and activities for APECS which fall within the goals and objectives of the organization. This shall be done in consultation with the Executive Committee. However, all changes in governance and structure require Council approval.
2.4.8 The Executive Director shall represent APECS at meetings of other organizations to which an APECS representative is invited, or may delegate an alternate, such as the President.
2.4.9 In the following circumstances, the Executive Committee (in consultation with the Advisory Committee and organizational members) shall propose a strategy which must be approved by the Council: (i) the Executive Director resigns or is otherwise removed from office pursuant to section 2.8; (ii) the Executive Committee or Council supports a motion of no-confidence in the Executive Director; (iii) loss of financial and/ or institutional support for the Executive Director or International Directorate.
2.5 Advisory Committee
2.5. APECS Advisory Committee members are appointed by invitation from the Executive Committee.
2.5.1 The composition of the Advisory Committee shall include senior scientists, administrators, former individual members of APECS and other appropriate individuals.
2.5.2 The Advisory Committee will be large to reduce the demands of individual members and to limit requests to those most directly relevant to each member.
2.6 Committees and Working Groups
2.6.1 APECS should maintain the following standing committees: The Advisory Committee; and The Executive Committee.
2.6.2. Additional Committees and Working Groups
18.104.22.168. Working groups and committees can be formed either by the Executive Committee or by members as needed.
22.214.171.124. All working groups and committees should be created in consultation with the Executive Committee and Executive Director and must be approved by the Executive Committee.
126.96.36.199 All working groups and committees shall maintain regular contact with the Executive Committee and/ or International Directorate.
188.8.131.52 Committees and working groups shall comply with APECS TOR and ROP.
184.108.40.206. The Executive Committee has the right to dissolve working groups or committees due to inactivity or non-compliance with the APECS TOR and ROP. A consultation with the chairs and/or members of the respective working group or committee is encouraged before a working group or committee can be dissolved. If the chair(s) or members cannot be reached for a period of six consecutive months, the Executive Committee reserves the right to dissolve the group without further communication.
220.127.116.11. A working group is a group of people working together on an idea or a project relate to the Polar Regions, Alpine regions and the wider Cryosphere. A working group typically consists of three to ten people working together to achieve a defined objective or goal, usually within a year timeframe. Working groups must have a plan and a timeline outlining how they will accomplish their goal(s). The members of the working group will be in regular contact with each other an through any means of communications available. Steps for the creation and maintenance of a working group are outlined by the Executive Committee. If after three consecutive months a working group has produced no activity, the Executive Committee has the ability to appoint a new chair or dissolve the working group.
18.104.22.168. A Committee can be created for the purpose of driving longer-term activities within APECS. They can be subject related (e.g. Research Activities Committee, Education and Outreach Committee) or can be formed to represent a certain part of the APECS membership (e.g. National or Regional Committee). They may develop their own charter for facilitating the work within this committee. The charter has to comply with the APECS TOR and ROP and has to be approved by a majority of the committee. If such a charter has been approved it is binding for the committee but can be altered if necessary on a majority vote of the voting committee members.
22.214.171.124. Special case: National and Regional Committees
a) National and Regional Committees without formal organisational status within their home country / region are regular "committees" within APECS and all rights and responsibilities of any committee within APECS defined by the APECS TOR and ROP shall apply for them. The committee may be recognized through a formal Letter of Agreement when requested from the Executive Committee. In addition to the general rights and responsibilities defined in the APECS TOR and ROP, these National and Regional Committees have to comply with the "Guidelines for APECS National Committees" in Appendix 2.
b) National and Regional Committees with formal organisational status within their home country / region (e.g. through registration as a organisation or other means): Their status within APECS will change and they will be considered organisational members of APECS. They must define within 3 months of this status change their relationship with APECS through a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). These National and Regional Committees must comply with the APECS TOR and ROP as well as the "Guidelines for APECS National Committees" in Annex 2.
2.7 Individual Officers
2.7.1 Individual members may be appointed by agreement between the Executive Committee and International Directorate as officers to address specific organizational needs as and when required. (e.g. Communications Officer).
2.7.2 All individual officers must be APECS members at the time of their appointment.
2.7.3 Executive committee members and the APECS Executive Director shall be considered as individual officers of APECS.
2.8 Removal from Office
2.8.1 Any APECS official including Council members, Executive Committee members, President, Executive Director, Advisory Committee Members and individual officers shall cease to hold office if one or more of the following situations applies: He or she
(a) Ceases to be a member of APECS (excludes Advisory Committee members);
(b) Is removed by a vote of no confidence by the APECS Council;
(c) Becomes incapable by reason of mental disorder, illness or injury of managing and administering his or her own affairs;
(e) Resigns by notice;
(f) Is not able to be contacted by the International Directorate or the Executive Committee and is absent from their duties over a period of three consecutive months without notice such that the Executive Committee resolve that his or her office be vacated.
3. Proposals for APECS Activities
3.1 Any APECS member may propose activities for which APECS is (a) the lead organization, (b) a partner organization, or (c) represented in other appropriate roles. Approval must be provided by the International Directorate and/ or the Executive Committee.
3.3 The Executive Committee must approve any proposal in which APECS is identified as the lead organization and/ or recipient of funding.
3.4 Letters of support for external proposals may be provided by the International Directorate and/ or the Executive Committee.
Preface: APECS finances are managed in two budgets: (a) the Directorate Budget for the funding from the host institution, and (b) Operational Budget from additional income. APECS must use these funds in compliance with all relevant requirements and restrictions. These two budgets may require separate auditing and financial management. As necessary, the Rules of Procedure in this section may need to be altered to ensure that these requirements can be met, and in that case can be done so by approval of the Executive Committee.
4.1.1 APECS operates as a non-profit organization. Legal and tax status will be determined in conjunction with partnering organizations which remain to be established and formalized through formal agreements with APECS and amendments to the present document (APECS ROP), if necessary.
4.1.2 At times when there is a Directorate hosted at an identified institute, a budget will be developed through consultation between the Executive Committee, Executive Director and host institute.
4.1.3 Unless otherwise determined by agreement with an institute hosting the International Directorate, the fiscal year for APECS is from 1 April to 31 March.
4.1.4 APECS' budget for the subsequent three-year period, or defined term of the International Directorate at a host institution, will be drafted annually and its financial report of the preceding year will be published at the end of each financial year.
4.2 Income and Expenditure
4.2.1 Grants and income sought and/ or received by APECS must be approved by the Executive Committee and not contravene any APECS Environmental and Social Responsibility Code of Conduct ratified by the Council.
4.2.2 All APECS expenditures must be outlined in the budget approved by the APECS Executive Committee.
4.2.3 The Executive Committee of APECS may authorize unforeseen expenditure below $2000 (two thousand US dollars) pursuant to section 2.3.7. Unforeseen expenditures above this amount require Council approval.
4.2.4 The APECS budget may be modified by unanimous agreement of the Executive Committee to accept a complete, amended budget.
4.3.1 APECS monies may be deposited in accounts held:
(i) by APECS, where such an account has been set up with conditions approved by the Executive Committee;
(ii) by an organizational member, through written agreement between APECS and that member; or
(iii) in any other account that is approved by the Executive Committee.
4.4.1 APECS may be subject to overhead costs associated with funding sourced through organizational members. APECS shall seek exemption from such costs whenever possible.
4.5.1 APECS accepts the financial auditing requirements of any organization supporting the International Directorate.
4.5.2 Auditing will be undertaken by the auditor of the host institution. If the host is unable to do so, separate, annual audits will be undertaken by a professional auditing company, at the expense of APECS and approved by the Executive Committee.
4.5.3 APECS shall retain and archive all financial documents for at least 10 years.
4.6.1 The Executive Committee may authorize any APECS member to enter into any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of APECS, unless otherwise restricted by law. Such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.
4.7.1 No loans shall be contracted on behalf of APECS and no evidence of indebtedness shall be issued in its name unless authorized by a resolution of the Executive Committee and approved by Council vote pursuant to section 2.2.3. Such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.
4.8 Cheques, Drafts and other Payment Orders
4.8.1 The Executive Committee shall determine policy for appointing officers of APECS as approved signatories for cheques, drafts, or other orders for the payment of money, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of APECS.
4.9 Financial Responsibilities of the Directorate
4.9.1. The International Directorate, or in its absence, the Executive Committee, has the following financial duties and responsibilities:
(a) oversees the compilation and submission of Operational Finance budgets to the Executive Committee for annual approval.
(b) secures Operational Finances for APECS;
(c) coordinates the acquisition of Activity Finances for APECS;
(d) keeps a full account of all APECS monies;
(e) compiles financial reports at the end of the fiscal year.
(f) submits a financial report for the preceding financial year to the APECS Executive Committee annually. Once approved by the APECS Executive Committee, the Director publishes this report.
4.10 Financial Accountability
4.10.1 All operating practices will be transparent and accountable to our membership and advisory committee.
4.10.2 Financial activities will be accurately described to ensure the financial support received furthers APECS' mission, goals and objectives.
4.10.3 All written agreements will be honored to the best of APECS' ability.
4.10.4 The details of all major financial support, in-kind or otherwise, and the activities to which support has been used for will be made available upon request.
4.10.5 APECS will make decisions based on financial abilities as well as guidelines on Environmental and Social Responsibility ratified in accordance with section 5.1.
4.10.6. APECS is not financially responsible for any APECS National Committee, unless otherwise agreed upon for specific events and amounts.
5. Environmental and Social Responsibility, and Non-discrimination
Preface: Members of APECS have a deep appreciation for the Polar and Alpine Regions. We recognize that it is our responsibility and in our interest to make our research accessible and relevant to society, respect and safeguard the environment and cultures of the Polar Regions, be mindful of the implications and consequences of our professional actions, and be fair and ethical in the course of our work.
We here outline the broadest sense of APECS's commitment to Environmental and Social Responsibility and Non-discrimination with regard to APECS's Rules of Procedure. We propose the development of a separate Code of Conduct to be ratified by the Council. This approach separates specifics from the ROP, and allows such a Code of Conduct to be developed over time and to evolve with members' response to relevant issues.
5.1 Environmental and social responsibilities
5.1.1 APECS will respect the integrity, morality and spirituality of the culture, traditions and relationships of indigenous peoples, traditional societies, and local communities with their worlds.
5.1.2 APECS will promote socially, environmentally and ethically responsible practices within the research community.
5.1.3 APECS has developed environmentally and socially responsible guidelines for accepting donations. These guidelines are attached as Appendix 1 to the Rules of Procedure. Further guidelines related to APECS practices may be adopted in accordance with section 2.2.3.
5.1.4 APECS will not knowingly support research that promotes military conflicts or the production of weapons.
5.2.1 APECS will seek to provide equal opportunities to all members regardless of gender, sexual orientation, creed, religion, race, color, national origin, economic status, cultural mores, or organizational affiliation.
5.2.2 APECS will not discriminate against either members or others on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, creed, religion, race, color, national origin, economic status, cultural mores, or organizational affiliation.
6. Modification of the Terms of Reference and Rules of Procedure
6.1 Proposed amendments to either the Terms of Reference or Rules of Procedure must be presented in writing to, and approved by, the Council according to section 2.2.3.
6.2 Proposed amendments shall be considered annually unless extenuating circumstances dictate earlier.
Adopted by the APECS 2007-2008 Council on 16 June 2008 – by unanimous approval.
APECS Executive Committee 2007-2008
Kriss Rokkan Iversen - President, University of Tromso, Norway
Daniel Pringle, University of Alaska, USA
Hugues Lantuit, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany
Narelle Baker, Scott Polar Research Institute, UK
Jose Xavier, Center for Marine Sciences, Portugal
Jenny Baeseman – Director, International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska, USA
APECS Council 2007-2008
Adrian McCallum, Scott Polar Research Institute
Alexandre Trindade Nieuwendam, Centro de Estudos Geograficos, Portugal
Amber Church, Simon Fraser University, Canada
Armelle Decaulne, CNRS, France
Arthur Mason, Arizona State University, USA
Arid Bring, Stockholm University, Sweden
Bettina Kaiser, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Caroline Souffreau, University Ghent, Belgium
Claudia Halsband-Lenk, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK
Dirk Notz, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
Edward Moss, Uffington, Oxon, UK
James Cheshire, University of Southampton, UK
Jason Davis, The Ohio State University, USA
Jill Zamzow, University of Alabama, USA
Kazuyuki Saito, Nagoya University, Japan and University of Alaska, USA
Kristina Backstrand, Stockholm University, Sweden
Liz Thomas, British Antarctic Survey, UK
Mieke Sterken, University Ghent, Belgium
Melianie Raymond, University of Otago, New Zealand
Peter DiFiore, Princeton University, USA
Rhian Salmon, IPY IPO, UK
Tina Tin, Antarctic Southern Ocean Coalition, France
Torsten Sachs, AWI
Tyler Kuhn, Simon Fraser University, Canada
Xiao Cunde, State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences in Lanzhou, China
Amended by the APECS 2013-2014 Council on September 9, 2014 – by unanimous approval of the council.
APECS Executive Committee 2013-2014
Christie Logvinova (president), Clark University, United States/Russia
Frigga Kruse, University of Groningen, Netherlands
Russell Fielding, University of Denver, United States
Jean-Sébastien Moore, Université Laval, Canada
Iglika Trifonova, Bulgarian Antarctica Institute, Bulgaria
Jennifer Provencher (ex-officio), Carleton University, Canada
Penelope Wagner (ex-officio), University of Delaware, United States/Norway
Yulia Zaika (ex-officio), M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
Gerlis Fugmann – Executive Director of APECS, University of Tromsø, Norway
APECS Council 2013-2014
Cristian Aldea, University of Magallanes, Chile
Elaine Alves dos Santos, University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Sarah Bartholow, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, United States
Roxanne Beltran, University of Alaska, United States
Vincent Carrier, Université Laval/University Centre in Svalbard, Canada/Norway
Eleanor Darlington, Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Archana Dayal, The Energy and Resources Institute, India
Pedro Echevesta, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain
Francyne Elias-Piera, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain/Brazil
Ellyn Enderlin, University of Maine Climate Change Institute, United States
Laura Fleming-Sharp, Arctic Studies Center, Canada/United States
Ruth Hindshaw, University of St. Andrews, United Kingdom
Patricia Johnston, University of British Columbia, Canada
Alia Khan, University of Colorado, United States
Laura Kelvin, Western University, Canada
Laura Ferguson, Hariot-Watt University, United Kingdom
Minkyoung Kim, POSTECH, Korea
Michael Laiho, University of Lapland, Finland/United Kingdom
Maja Lisowska, Jagiellonian University, Poland
Silvia Lourenço, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
Sanna Majaneva, University of Helsinki, Finland
Heather Mariash, McGill University, Finland/Canada
Adam Naito, Texas A&M University, United States
Karolina Paquin, University of Tromsø, Norway
Hugo Romero, University of Manchester, Chile/United Kingdom
Kristen Shake, Clarke University, United States
Sara Strey, University of Illinois, United States
Astrid Surmatz, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Zuzanna Swirad, Scott Polar Research Institute, United Kingdom
Ines Tavernier, Consortium Marine at the University of Gent, Belgium
Alexandre Trindade Niewendam, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Tristy Vick-Majors, Montana State University, United States
Bianca Zhang, the Arctic Institute, Iceland