The Antarctic continent and surrounding oceans are key parts of the Earth System through the entire history of the Earth. The basement core of Antarctica comprises a suite of crustal blocks that were parts of various supercontinents (e.g. Rodinia, Gondwana). Their outcrops provide important insights into Earth processes. Sedimentary records on and around Antarctica also provide important insights into the history and natural variability of the earth's environments. The geological record can provide key insights into the evolution and processes of change in the Antarctic environment and the biota dependent on it. The geology of the ice sheet bed strongly influences ice behaviour and the development of the ice sheet from its inception. Geodetic and geophysical observatories can furnish a fundamental contribution to the study of geodynamics processes across the continent. The challenge of the next phase of Antarctic science will be to integrate all branches of science into a holistic understanding of Antarctic and its trajectory of change.