SCAR Scientific Research Programme AnT-ERA is a platform for the exchange of knowledge and for the support of research on BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES at ecological time scales especially related to environmental change. Some Antarctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid environmental change, whereas others appear to be relatively stable. It is therefore essential to understand the current functioning of biological systems, to determine thresholds and predict upcoming ecosystem services. This will permit to include the Antarctic in a wider ecological debate about changes across the global biosphere. Biological process studies will focus on three levels of biological organisation, ranging from molecules through populations to ecosystems, with a cascading flow of information between them.