Session Chair: Greer Gilmer
Session Convener: Kara Layton
Session Coordinators: Alex Aves, Charlie Hewitt, Vicki Heinrich
Time: 20 May from 20:45 - 23:15 GMT
20:50 - 21:05 GMT: Occurrence Of Marine Mammals Along The Southeastern Pacific Ocean And The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Observed On Board Of The “arc 20 De Julio” Vessel During Colombian Scientific Expeditions To Antarctica
Presenter: Dalia Barragán-Barrera
Institution: Centro de Investigaciones Oceanográficas e Hidrográficas del Caribe CIOH-DIMAR
Type: Oral Presentation
Abstract: The Marine Mammal Monitoring Program at the Colombian Antarctic Program has conducted marine mammal survey on board the “ARC 20 de Julio”, a Colombian Navy vessel, with the goal of assessing occurrence patterns of marine mammal species along the Southeastern Pacific Ocean (SPO) and the Southern Ocean (SO), following a transect from Panama to the western Antarctic Peninsula. A total of 1,745h (38,785km) of visual observation effort were conducted along around 92,709km of distance traveled during four expeditions (2014-2015, 2016-2017, 2017-2018, and 2018-2019 austral summers). A total of 917 marine mammal sightings were recorded, 701 of which were identified to the species level, representing 29 species (SO=5; ESP=20; both=4). Encounter rates (ER), assessed separately for the SPO and SO, were calculated by groups observed per 100h and 1,000km. Ordered from high to low sighting frequency, the most observed five species in the SPO were the South American fur seal, common dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, dusky dolphin, and Peale's dolphin, while in the SO were the humpback whale, crabeater seal, killer whale, Weddell seal, and southern elephant seal. Univariate kernel analyses were conducted to explore the influence of Chlorophyll-a concentration and bathymetry over the most common marine mammal species distribution. These analyses suggested that species frequency is higher within productive areas. Regarding bathymetry, the South American fur seal, bottlenose dolphin, dusky dolphin, and killer whale seem to be more frequent in waters less than 1,000m in depth. In contrast, the common dolphin, blue whale and sperm whale appear to occur in deeper waters. Further survey and monitoring are needed to effectively assess abundance and distributional pattern, as well as the potential impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on marine mammals’ distribution in the SPO and the Antarctic Peninsula.
21:05 - 21:35 GMT: Keynote - Collaboration of Traditional Knowledge and Science - An Inuit Perspective
Presenter: Mia Otokiak
Institution: Early Career Scientist
Type: Keynote Presentation
Abstract: Mia is an Inuit, early-career scientist who was born and raised in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. She has always had an interest and love for science, the environment and sharing her knowledge. She has a full-time job as a Junior Technical Advisor with the Nunavut Impact Review Board (NIRB). NIRB’s mandate is to protect and promote the well-being of the environment and people of Nunavut through their Impact Assessment Process. She has been working with NIRB for almost 4 years and thoroughly enjoys being able to work with Proponents, Stakeholders, Regional Inuit Organizations, and Nunavut communities on important environmental issues and how to mitigate them.
She was lucky enough to sail the Northwest Passage last summer as a part of the University of Rhode Island’s ‘Northwest Passage Project’. On this 18-day expedition she was able to work with scientists, researchers, and Inuit youth to collect data on the changing Arctic conditions due to Climate Change.
She is also a Youth Mentor in a program called Ikaarvik: Barriers to Bridges, a program that wants to show Indigenous youth that they can be involved in science and research in a meaningful way. Like this year’s theme, Ikaarvik understands the importance of collaboration between early career researchers, science communicators, educators, and members of the local communities and Mia looks forward to discussing this topic in more detail!
21:35 - 21:50 GMT: Insights Into Ice-ocean Interactions And Their Biological Effects In East Greenland
Presenter: Alba Filella Lopez de Lamadrid
Institution: GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany
Type: Oral presentation
Abstract: Freshwater discharge around Greenland has more than doubled during the last decade, affecting regional ocean circulation, productivity and associated ecosystem services. Understanding the associated physical and biogeochemical impacts of ice melt is critical for quantifying feedbacks within the Earth system under future climate scenarios. In summer 2019 we performed several cross-shore sections to survey the multiple water masses present within the East Greenland System. Surface polar waters flowing south in the East Greenland Current were rich in dissolved organic carbon and low in nutrients such as NO3. Accordingly, integrated chlorophyll a fluorescence increased from the coast moving offshore towards warm, saltier Atlantic influenced waters. Smaller autotrophs (picoplankton and nanoplankton) also occurred in the north, Arctic-influenced coastal stations. High particulate organic matter appeared associated with high phytoplankton, bacteria and virus numbers in surface Atlantic productive waters. Thus, watermasses’ characteristics appeared to be playing a major role on influencing microbial community distributions. Of particular interest was an enhanced production of gel particles in an area extending across Denmark Strait. Significant concentrations (e.g. 80 µg X.G. eq. L-1) of these rich in carbon transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) were even found deeper than 100 m, which is highly unusual, in the entrance of the biggest fjord Scoresby Sund. We speculated TEP production in the studied region was driven by at least two different processes since relative high concentrations were found across broad watermasses. From preliminary data analysis we have learned that the East Greenland coastal system is highly dynamic reflecting various degrees of mixing between southward flowing Polar Water and warmer Atlantic water.
Presenter: César Marina Montes
Institution: University of Zaragoza
Type: Oral presentation
Abstract: Quantification of suspended particulate matter (SPM) measurements together with polar contour maps and backward air mass trajectory analyses were developed to better understand the main local and remote sources of aerosol contamination in the Antarctic region. Samples were taken during the austral summer 2016-2017 at the “Gabriel de Castilla” Spanish Antarctic Research Station (Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic). Aerosols were deposited in an air filter through a low-volume sampler and chemically analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Diferent elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Cu, Pb, Sr, Ti, Zn, Hf, Zr, V, As, Ti, Mn, Sn and Cr were identified. The study of air masses and high enrichment factor values of several elements (Hf, Zr, As, Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb) together with their correlations (Hf/Zr, V/As, Ti/Mn and Cu/Sn) suggests a potentially significant role of three main sources in this area: remote maritime traffic, local petrol combustion (generators and/or tourist cruises), and remote/local crust. Polar contour graphical maps allowed reproducing wind maps revealing the biological local distribution of K and P (penguin colony). Overall, the present study demonstrates the existence and progression of anthropogenic pollution at this remote site from distant as well as local sources following the Antarctic circumpolar wind pattern.
22:05 - 22:10 GMT: Food For Thought; Subsistence Fishing In Northern Ontario And Future Needs From Environmental Monitoring Programs.
Presenter: Gretchen Lescord
Type: Flash presentation
Abstract: Fish is a lean and healthy source of protein, packed with nutritious omega-3 fatty acids. These benefits are particularly important in remote northern communities across Canada, where Indigenous Peoples rely heavily on locally-caught fish as a vital part of their diets, culture, and food security. Wild fish also contain contaminants (e.g., mercury) and balancing the health benefits of eating fish with the risks from contaminants can be challenging. While contaminants in fish are regularly monitored as part of government-led programs, academic research projects, and some industrial activities, in Ontario these approaches tend to focus on sport fishing (e.g. muscle tissue of common sport species), rather than subsistence fishing (e.g., other tissues from less commonly eaten species). This project aims to document the species and parts of fish that are commonly eaten (and how often) in a subsistence context with the goal of informing future monitoring programs. We developed a short (10-question) anonymous survey to be distributed to approximately 20 First Nation communities in sub-Arctic Ontario, Canada. The region is large (~425,000 sq. km.) and many communities are remote, lacking year-round road access, making traditional and locally-harvested foods a vital resource. The 10 questions, which were developed with input from local tribal councils, will be discussed and feedback from other researchers on our approach would be greatly appreciated. The survey will be submitted for an ethics review at Laurentian University in Sudbury Ontario this spring and we have made every effort to respect OCAP® (Ownership, Control, Access and Possession) standards. We plan to share the anonymous but raw data with communities directly for use in future policy planning and community-based monitoring programs. We hope the results of this survey will inform future risk assessments and environmental monitoring and encourage the inclusion of food security in future planning, policy, and research around fisheries in sub-Arctic Ontario and beyond.
22:10 - 22:25 GMT: Analysis Of Smart Co-creation And Planning Initiatives Of The City Of Oulu From The Dialogue Perspective.
Presenter: Alexandra Middleton
Institution: Oulu Business School, Finland
Type: Oral Presentation
Abstract: Purpose – The paper intends to contribute to critical discussions on citizen-centric approach toward Smart City developments in the Arctic through understanding of how citizen participation is enacted/translated into exiting Smart city agenda (IT, neoliberalism and public sector bureaucratic ethos).
Design/methodology/approach – This is a qualitative study of the development of Smart co-creation and planning initiatives of the city of Oulu (Finland) during 2017-2019. Data is gathered through triangulation of document search, interviews, and (video/participatory observations).
Findings – Intentions: Based on the documentary analysis, interviews with actors involved into Oulu’s co-creation and planning initiatives and observations, the paper reveals the intricate and challenging nature of the dialogue formation within social-technical and political dynamics of Oulu as a Smart City.
Originality/value – The paper responds to the recent calls to critical examinations of the citizen dimension in the development of Smart City concept. Along with a contribution to the critical literature on Smart City governance, the paper gives valuable propositions for practitioners and policymakers in terms of obstacles for citizens involvement and the rhetoric gap of Smart City formation for citizens.
22:25 - 22:40 GMT: "Glacier-ocean Interface As An Important Mechanism In The Carbon Cycle: A Case Study From In Situ Measurements And Remote Sensing In Antarctica"
Presenter: Ximena Aguilar Vega
Institution: University of Magallanes
Type: Oral presentation
Abstract: Recently glaciers and ice sheets have been recognized as hot spots for biogeochemical weathering with implications in the global carbon cycle (Bhatia et al., 2013; Hood et al., 2015; Wadham et al., 2019). Meltwater runoff contains significant amounts of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) normally dominated by supraglacial melting (Stibal et al., 2012). Assessing both organic carbon (OC) reservoirs is important as they are likely to be influenced by different processes, and to have positive and negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems (Musilova et al., 2017), as in ice sheets and glaciers (Hu et al., 2018). Although satellite data has been used to address the contribution of ice mass to the ocean we still lack precise estimates of calving, melt runoff, and oceanographic properties to quantify accurately the release and impacts of DOC and POC in the marine ecosystems. Satellite and in situ data was collected in Lange glacier and Almirantazgo bay, King George Island during the summer of 2020 to quantify the glacial input of freshwater to the marine system through digital terrain modelling complemented with batimetry. Three shallow ice cores were extracted to determine the concentrations per volume, as different features of DOC and POC. Moreover, an oceanographic transect and profiles were performed to assess OC characteristics, primary productivity and bio-optical properties in terms of glacial influence. All the data collected is being analysed and results will be presented during the framework of the APECS INTERNATIONAL ONLINE CONFERENCE, 2020.
Presenter: Skylar Leili Lipman
Institution: University of Alberta, Canada
Type: Flash presentation
Abstract: Community-based research (CBR) comes in many shapes and colours, and not all approaches are equally effective. CBR as a methodology has the potential to redress existing power structures and contribute to creating equitable solutions, combatting the history of research as a method of assimilation. CBR can also lead to better-understood, more accurate research findings by addressing questions of importance to communities and contextualizing data. I first analyze two case studies in which CBR has been applied: the Arctic Council and Archipelago Management Board. Three parameters are used to describe CBR: level of community involvement, community involvement in multiple stages of the research process, and community power to dictate the application of research findings. Three outcomes are then considered to score the efficacy of CBR: accuracy of research findings, community satisfaction with research process and results, and contributions to decolonization efforts. A number of mechanisms connecting the three parameters and outcomes are explored, such as contextualizing data, creating relevant research questions, and triangulating findings using multiple perspectives and knowledge systems. Following a discussion of each case study in turn, I synthesize these lessons as guideposts for future research.
22:45 - 23:00 GMT: Abrupt global warming, a slowdown thereafter and associated changes in the last few decades
Presenter: Indrani Roy
Institution: University College London, United Kingdom
Type: Oral presentation
Abstract: This study addresses abrupt global warming and a slowdown thereafter that happened in recent decades. It separated the role of anthropogenic CO2 led linear trend to that from natural factors (volcano and the sun). It segregates a period 1976–1996 where two explosive volcanic eruptions occurred in active phases of strong solar cycles and also the period covers two whole solar cycles. That same period coincided with abrupt global warming. This study suggests that domination of a particular type of ENSO, the Central Pacific (CP) type ENSO and related feedback from water vapour played a crucial role. A plausible mechanism was proposed that could be triggered by explosive volcanos via a preferential North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase. It modulates the CP ENSO via extratropical Rossby wave and affects the Aleutian Low. From that angle, it is possible to explain the disruption of ENSO and Indian Summer Monsoon teleconnection during the abrupt warming period and how it recovered subsequently afterwards. Interestingly, individual models and also the CMIP5 model ensemble fails to agree to the observation. This study further explores important contributions due to natural drivers those are missed by models.
Presenter: Louise Owen - Visual Artist
Institution: Visual Artist and retired Teacher Arts & Media, TAFE NSW - Illawarra Institute
Type: Oral presentation
Abstract: This presentation illustrates a way that visual art can influence the debate on climate change. Science, by itself, hasn’t convinced people of the imminent danger posed by anthropogenic climate change. Appealing to rational impulses hasn’t worked. Art can be the catalyst for changing people’s perspective as its’ appeal extends to our deeper feelings. Collaboration between the two disciplines may be a more effective way of influencing public opinion on this vexed issue.
Historically artists have had a role in visually interpreting scientific discoveries and expeditions. Many of us would have had little knowledge of Antarctica if it were not for the photographs of Frank Hurley.
I am a visual artist from Australia concerned about the survival of our planet. I am currently working on a painting project relating to the Polar Regions and the science of climate change.
The presentation will begin with an account of my father’s Arctic expedition in 1965 when he was a submarine Commander on a voyage under the Arctic ice sheet. I will include some of his photographs, and pages from the Logbook. Then, I will do a visual walk-through the studio and explain some of the ideas underpinning the images I am painting; looking up at the ‘slits’ and ‘skylights’ from under the ice; looking down through the ice to ‘see’ the fossils of Antarctic Beech forests exposed by the melting ice; an Arctic glacier about to explode with fire; and a subtropical stand of Antarctic Beech rainforest up in flames...
My father is 92 years old and, COVID-19 permitting, he may also be present and could answer any questions about his Arctic experience.